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“The Humble Spirit Behind the USA Flag:  Betsy Ross and Her Story” 

“The Humble Spirit Behind the USA Flag:  Betsy Ross and Her Story” 

Mending our flag is once again, a step at uniting our nation.  America On Coffee

Synopsis
Betsy Ross: An Early American Life. Elizabeth Griscom was born on January 1, 1752, in the bustling colonial city of Philadelphia. She was the eighth of 17 children. Her parents, Rebecca James Griscom and Samuel Griscom were both Quakers.

Betsy Ross, a fourth-generation America born in 1752 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, apprenticed with an upholsterer before irrevocably splitting with her family to marry outside the Quaker religion. She and her husband John Ross started their own upholstery business.

Per Betsy Ross‘ story, she met with George Washington, George Ross, and Robert Morris in the spring of 1776, to have the discussion that eventually led to the sewing of the first American flag. She continued to run her upholstery business while reportedly making flags for the U.S. until the late 1820s.

US history.org

Sources:  biography.com; history.com; ushistory.org

http://womenshistory.about.com/od/rossbetsy/ig/Betsy-Ross/

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“The American Civil War 1861 to 1865” 

The American Civil War, a brief summary! The American Civil War, waged from 1861 to 1865, is remembered on this date. Before and during the Civil War, the North and South differed greatly on economic issues. The war was about slavery, but primarily about its economic consequences.

http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/american-civil-war-brief-summary


The Civil War is the central event in America’s historical consciousness. While the Revolution of 1776-1783 created the United States, the Civil War of 1861-1865 determined what kind of nation it would be. The war resolved two fundamental questions left unresolved by the revolution: whether the United States was to be a dissolvable confederation of sovereign states or an indivisible nation with a sovereign national government; and whether this nation, born of a declaration that all men were created with an equal right to liberty, would continue to exist as the largest slaveholding country in the world.

Northern victory in the war preserved the United States as one nation and ended the institution of slavery that had divided the country from its beginning. But these achievements came at the cost of 625,000 lives–nearly as many American soldiers as died in all the other wars in which this country has fought combined. The American Civil War was the largest and most destructive conflict in the Western world between the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and the onset of World War I in 1914.

The Civil War started because of uncompromising differences between the free and slave states over the power of the national government to prohibit slavery in the territories that had not yet become states. When Abraham Lincoln won election in 1860 as the first Republican president on a platform pledging to keep slavery out of the territories, seven slave states in the deep South seceded and formed a new nation, the Confederate States of America. The incoming Lincoln administration and most of the Northern people refused to recognize the legitimacy of secession. They feared that it would discredit democracy and create a fatal precedent that would eventually fragment the no-longer United States into several small, squabbling countries.

The event that triggered war came at Fort Sumter in Charleston Bay on April 12, 1861. Claiming this United States fort as their own, the Confederate army on that day opened fire on the federal garrison and forced it to lower the American flag in surrender. Lincoln called out the militia to suppress this “insurrection.” Four more slave states seceded and joined the Confederacy. By the end of 1861 nearly a million armed men confronted each other along a line stretching 1200 miles from Virginia to Missouri. Several battles had already taken place–near Manassas Junction in Virginia, in the mountains of western Virginia where Union victories paved the way for creation of the new state of West Virginia, at Wilson’s Creek in Missouri, at Cape Hatteras in North Carolina, and at Port Royal in South Carolina where the Union navy established a base for a blockade to shut off the Confederacy’s access to the outside world.

But the real fighting began in 1862. Huge battles like Shiloh in Tennessee, Gaines’ MillSecond Manassas, and Fredericksburg in Virginia, and Antietam in Maryland foreshadowed even bigger campaigns and battles in subsequent years, from Gettysburg in Pennsylvania to Vicksburg on the Mississippi to Chickamauga and Atlanta in Georgia. By 1864 the original Northern goal of a limited war to restore the Union had given way to a new strategy of “total war” to destroy the Old South and its basic institution of slavery and to give the restored Union a “new birth of freedom,” as President Lincoln put it in his address at Gettysburg to dedicate a cemetery for Union soldiers killed in the battle there.

Confederate Dead Before the Dunker Church

Alexander Gardner’s famous photo of Confederate dead before the Dunker Church on the Antietam Battlefield.

Library of Congress

For three long years, from 1862 to 1865, Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia staved off invasions and attacks by the Union Army of the Potomac commanded by a series of ineffective generals until Ulysses S. Grant came to Virginia from the Western theater to become general in chief of all Union armies in 1864. After bloody battles at places with names like The WildernessSpotsylvaniaCold Harbor, and Petersburg, Grant finally brought Lee to bay at Appomattox in April 1865. In the meantime Union armies and river fleets in the theater of war comprising the slave states west of the Appalachian Mountain chain won a long series of victories over Confederate armies commanded by hapless or unlucky Confederate generals. In 1864-1865 General William Tecumseh Sherman led his army deep into the Confederate heartland of Georgia and South Carolina, destroying their economic infrastructure while General George Thomas virtually destroyed the Confederacy’s Army of Tennessee at the battle of Nashville.

“The Civil War’s Child Soldiers: “Danny Boy” 

https://youtu.be/Q52_MU4W_uE

By the spring of 1865 all the principal Confederate armies surrendered, and when Union cavalry captured the fleeing Confederate President Jefferson Davis in Georgia on May 10, 1865, resistance collapsed and the war ended. The long, painful process of rebuilding a united nation free of slavery began.

Source: https://www.civilwar.org/learn/articles/brief-overview-american-civil-war


 “The Civil War and Reconstruction”

 
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Posted by on October 9, 2017 in American issues, historical, war

 

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“45 Years After Legendary Attica Prison Uprising, New Book Reveals State Role in Deadly Standoff” 

“45 Years After Legendary Attica Prison Uprising, New Book Reveals State Role in Deadly Standoff” 

The Attica Prison riot, also known as the Attica Prison rebellion or Attica Prison uprising, occurred at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, New York, United States in 1971. Based upon prisoners’ demands for better living conditions and political rights, the riot was one of the most well-known and significant uprisings of the Prisoners’ Rights Movement. On September 9, 1971, two weeks after the killing of George Jackson at San Quentin State Prison, about 1,000 of the Attica prison’s approximately 2,200 inmates rioted and took control of the prison, taking 42 staff hostage.

http://www.newyorkdaileynews.com

During the following four days of negotiations, authorities agreed to 28 of the prisoners’ demands,[citation needed] but would not agree to demands for complete amnesty from criminal prosecution for the prison takeover or for the removal of Attica’s superintendent. By the order of Governor Nelson Rockefeller, state police took back control of the prison. When the uprising was over, at least 43 people were dead, including ten correctional officers and civilian employees, and 33 inmates.

Rockefeller, who refused to visit the prisoners during the rebellion, stated that the prisoners “carried out the cold-blood killings they had threatened from the outset,”[1] despite only one of the deaths being attributed to the prisoners. New York Times writer Fred Ferretti said the rebellion concluded in “mass deaths that four days of taut negotiations had sought to avert”.[2]

Throughout the negotiations, there was leadership and organization among the prisoners. Frank “Big Black” Smith was appointed as head of security, and he also kept the hostages and the observers safe.[5] Additionally, an ardent orator, 21-year-old Elliott James “L.D.” Barkley, was a strong force during the negotiations, speaking with great articulation to the inmates, the camera crews, and outsiders at home.[6] Barkley, just days away from his scheduled release at the time of the riot, was killed during the recapturing of the prison. Assemblyman Arthur Eve testified that Barkley was alive after the prisoners had surrendered and the state regained control; another inmate stated that the officers searched him out, yelling for Barkley, and shot him in the back.[6][7]

Police shooting down at prisoners in the yard. (Photo credit by William Kunstler: Disturbing the Universe)

We are men! We are not beasts and we do not intend to be beaten or driven as such. The entire prison populace, that means each and every one of us here, have set forth to change forever the ruthless brutalization and disregard for the lives of the prisoners here and throughout the United States. What has happened here is but the sound before the fury of those who are oppressed. We will not compromise on any terms except those terms that are agreeable to us. We’ve called upon all the conscientious citizens of America to assist us in putting an end to this situation that threatens the lives of not only us, but of each and every one of you, as well.

Elliott James “L.D.” Barkley, 1971

As speakers like Barkley raised morale, the rebels’ negotiating team of prisoners proposed their requests to the commissioner. The Attica Liberation Faction Manifesto Of Demands is a compilation of complaints written by the Attica prisoners, which speak directly to the “sincere people of society”. It includes 27 demands, such as better medical treatment, fair visitation rights, and an end to physical brutality. The prisoners also requested better sanitation, improved food quality, and one set of rules for the state among numerous other demands. The manifesto specifically assigns the power to negotiate to five inmates: Donald Noble, Peter Butler, Frank Lott, Carl Jones-El, and Herbert Blyden X. Additionally, the document specifically lists out “vile and vicious slave masters” who oppressed the prisoners such as the New York governor, New York Corrections, and even the United States Courts.[8]

The prisoners continued to unsuccessfully negotiate with Correctional Services Commissioner Russell G. Oswald, and then later with a team of observers that included Tom Wicker, an editor of the New York Times, James Ingram of the Michigan Chronicle, state senator John Dunne, state representative Arthur Eve, civil rights lawyer William Kunstler, and others. Prisoners requested the presence of Minister Louis Farrakhan, National Representative of the Nation of Islam, but he declined.[9]

The situation may have been further complicated by Governor Rockefeller’s refusal to come to the scene of the riot and meet with the inmates,[4] although some later evaluations of the incident would postulate that his absence from the scene actually prevented the situation from deteriorating.[10]Negotiations broke down, and Oswald was unable to make further concessions to the inmates. However, he did not tell them that negotiations had ended and he would take the prison back by force. He even said: “I want to continue negotiations with you.”[11] Oswald later called Governor Rockefeller and again begged him to come to the prison to calm the riot. After the governor’s refusal, Oswald stated that he would order the State Police to retake the facility by force. Rockefeller agreed with Oswald’s decision. This agreement was later criticized by a commission created by Rockefeller to study the riot and its aftermath.[12]

 
 

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A Nation Divided Part II (Morals) 

The Moral Roots of Liberals and Conservatives

 
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Posted by on October 7, 2017 in left wing, right wing

 

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Gas Lines Evoke Memories Of Oil Crises In The 1970s

Gas Lines Evoke Memories Of Oil Crises In The 1970s

Source:  http://www.energytomorrow.org/

Gas lines in America may be rare, but they’re not unprecedented.

The gas shortage in the Northeast, the result of Superstorm Sandy, is inflicting plenty of pain. But it’s a localized phenomenon that’s not expected to last for long.

The gas shortage in the Northeast, the result of Superstorm Sandy, is inflicting plenty of pain. But it’s a localized phenomenon that’s not expected to last for long.

During two separate oil crises in the 1970s, Americans from coast to coast faced persistent gas shortages as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC, flexed its muscles and disrupted oil supplies.

In 1973 and again in 1979, drivers frequently faced around-the-block lines when they tried to fill up.

Drivers would go to stations before dawn or late at night, hoping to avoid the lines.

Odd-even rationing was introduced — meaning that if the last digit on your license plate was odd, you could get gas only on odd-numbered days. New Jersey and New York have just reintroduced the system.

Image:  https://www.bloomberg.com/news

source: pinterest.com

Source:  https://amp/amp.newsobserver.com/living

Back in the ’70s, some gas stations took to posting flags — green if they had gas, yellow if rationing was in effect and red if they were out of gas.

To conserve gas, the maximum speed limit was cut to 55 miles per hour. To cut energy consumption in the broader economy, daylight saving time was introduced year-round at the beginning of 1974, facing criticism from parents whose kids had to go to school before sunrise in the winter months.

When the second crisis hit in 1979-80, President Carter described combating it as the “moral equivalent of war,” and many Americans feared that oil shocks would be a recurring nightmare.

Since that crisis, gas prices have surged or fallen, but U.S. oil supplies have been relatively stable, and lines at the pump have, with rare exceptions, remained mercifully short.

Source: http://www.npr.org/sections/pictureshow/2012/11/10/164792293/gas-lines-evoke-memories-oil-crises-in-the-1970s

 
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Posted by on October 6, 2017 in historical

 

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“Flight 93 – Trailer [2006]” 

“Flight 93 – Trailer [2006]” 

United Airlines Flight 93 was a domestic scheduled passenger flightthat was hijacked by four Al-Qaedaterrorists on board, as part of the September 11 attacks. It crashed into a field in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, during an attempt by the passengers and crew to regain control. All 44 people aboard were killed, including the four hijackers, but no one on the ground was injured. The aircraft involved, a Boeing 757–222, was flying United Airlines‘ daily scheduled morning flight from Newark International Airport in New Jersey to San Francisco International Airport in California.

United Airlines Flight 93
A439, Flight 93 National Memorial, Stonycreek Township, Pennsylvania, USA, memorial sign, flight path.jpg

UA 93’s flight path on September 11, 2001, from Newark, New Jersey, to Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania.

Suicide hijacking summary
Date Tuesday, September 11, 2001
Summary Terrorist suicidehijacking
Site Field near the Diamond T. Mine, a coal strip mine in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Passengers 37 (including 4 hijackers)
Crew 7
Fatalities 44 (including 4 hijackers)
Survivors None
Aircraft type Boeing 757–222
Operator United Airlines
Registration N591UA
Flight origin Newark Int’l Airport (now Newark Liberty Int’l Airport)
Destination San Francisco Int’l Airport

The hijackers stormed the aircraft’s cockpit approximately 46 minutes after takeoff. The pilot and first officer took measures, such as de-activating the autopilot, to hinder the hijackers. However, Ziad Jarrah, who had trained as a pilot, took control of the aircraft and diverted it back toward the east coast, in the direction of Washington, D.C. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Ramzi bin al-Shibh have claimed that the intended target was the Capitol Building.[1]

After the hijackers took control of the plane, several passengers and flight attendants learned from phone calls that suicide attacks had already been made by hijacked airliners on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia. Many of the passengers then attempted to regain control of the aircraft from the hijackers. During the struggle, the plane crashed into a field near a reclaimed strip mine in Stonycreek Township, near Indian Lake and Shanksville, about 65 miles (105 km) southeast of Pittsburghand 130 miles (210 km) northwest of Washington, D.C. A few people witnessed the impact from the ground, and news agencies began reporting the event within an hour.

Of the four aircraft hijacked on September 11 – the others were American Airlines Flight 11, United Airlines Flight 175 and American Airlines Flight 77 – United Airlines Flight 93 was the only one that did not reach its hijackers’ intended target. Vice President Dick Cheney, in the Presidential Emergency Operations Center deep under the White House, upon learning of the premature crash, is reported to have said, “I think an act of heroism just took place on that plane.”[2]

A temporary memorial was built near the crash site soon after the attacks.[3]Construction of a permanent Flight 93 National Memorial was dedicated on September 10, 2011,[4] and the concrete and glass visitor center situated on a hill overlooking the site[5] was opened exactly four years later.[66

https://youtu.be/Vk2bbLfyA4A

 
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Posted by on October 6, 2017 in docu-drama

 

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CHIEF MAHON-GET YOUR HUMPTY DUMPTY, SORRY, SWANKED ASS OUT OF THE CLOUDS!  “Chief Judge Mahon Bans Anyone From Saying He’s Corrupt” You’re marked!

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Posted by on October 5, 2017 in judicial reform

 

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