Category Archives: evil

Judicial Corruption (Murals) pt 3


Brazil’s fight against corruption sets a good example to the world



Ahora, hay tres caminos… | Question Digital

OP-ED: Mexico: The Checklist Against Corruption | The Impart…

“Corruption annually costs Mexico between 2-10% percent of its GDP, reduces”


Costa Rica is Central America’s most honest country, says lates…

Anti-corruption graffiti along a concrete wall in Quito, Ecuador

Puerto Rico’s bankruptcy leaves US island facing hard times.

People walk past murals protesting the state of the economy in San Juan, Puerto Rico
Leave a comment

Posted by on May 23, 2018 in corruption, evil


Tags: ,

Join The Worldwide Exposure On Judicial Corruption

Anti Corrption Digest Romania

Romania | Anti Corruption Digest

EU monitoring of Romania for graft may soon end

Law and Justice Dis-ordered in the Supreme Court of Mexico –…

… Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, London, reflects upon images of law and justice in the Supreme Court of Mexico as the world’s leading socio- legal …


Judge Paula M. Rosales – Attorney – Miller Weisbrod, LLP |…

A huge thanks to Voyage Dallas Magazine for including me in
Dallas,TX -USA

Why Poorer People In Africa Don’t Go To Court: And Surprise…

Justice graffiti in Cape Town, South Africa. (Photo/ Flickr/ Ben Sut

Support to Anti-Corruption Efforts in Kosovo (SAEK)

The project, through an innovative and holistic approach towards anti- corruption, aims to strengthen institutional transparency, accountability …

Battered, not beaten: the fight against corruption – Indonesia at …
Charges have been brought against several prominent anti-corruption activists. by Mohammad

Ludo “Power Corruption And Lies” New Street Piece. – (Paris, France)

China’s Crackdown On Corruption May Now Be Weighi…

Your commments are welcomed!

Leave a comment

Posted by on May 22, 2018 in evil, injustice, militias, music





You do not know your history nor your collective powers as people (within your country)

You Do Not give any time, objectively or subjectively to build a relationship with God

Nor do you confront major issues that corrupt your country


You have little or no allegiance to God or country

You do not pray

You are the most prideful and selfish generation

You are the mirror image of every tv show or movie ever produced

You are the epitome of every monster and horror film ever-

Look at yourselves

You are so bound in the world and to the world by the conditions and things of and in the world

Your #1 allegiance is to yourself

You Do Not Protest, instead, you contest to …superficially prevail

This Now generation is Godless and the weakest generation EVER!




Posted by on April 15, 2018 in evil



The Court That Rules the World: Imagine a private, “global super court”…

The Court That Rules the World:  Imagine a private, “global super court”…

Featured image: http://www.super

that empowers corporations to bend countries to their will.

A Dark Cloud Has Arisen in America (

A Dark Cloud Has Arisen in America (

Now, from the blockbuster piece,

Say a nation tries to prosecute a corrupt CEO or ban dangerous pollution. Imagine that a company could turn to this super court and sue the whole country for daring to interfere with its profits, demanding hundreds of millions or even billions of dollars as retribution.

Imagine that this court is so powerful that nations often must heed its rulings as if they came from their own supreme courts, with no meaningful way to appeal. That it operates unconstrained by precedent or any significant public oversight, often keeping its proceedings and sometimes even its decisions secret. That the people who decide its cases are largely elite Western corporate attorneys who have a vested interest in expanding the court’s authority because they profit from it directly, arguing cases one day and then sitting in judgment another. That some of them half-jokingly refer to themselves as “The Club” or “The Mafia.”

And imagine that the penalties this court has imposed have been so crushing — and its decisions so unpredictable — that some nations dare not risk a trial, responding to the mere threat of a lawsuit by offering vast concessions, such as rolling back their own laws or even wiping away the punishments of convicted criminals.

This system is already in place, operating behind closed doors in office buildings and conference rooms in cities around the world. Known as investor-state dispute settlement, or ISDS, it is written into a vast network of treaties that govern international trade and investment, including NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, which Congress must soon decide whether to ratify.

The BuzzFeed News investigation explores four different aspects of ISDS. In coming days, it will show how the mere threat of an ISDS case can intimidate a nation into gutting its own laws, how some financial firms have transformed what was intended to be a system of justice into an engine of profit, and how America is surprisingly vulnerable to suits from foreign companies.

The series starts today with perhaps the least known and most jarring revelation: Companies and executives accused or even convicted of crimes have escaped punishment by turning to this special forum. Based on exclusive reporting from the Middle East, Central America, and Asia, BuzzFeed News has found the following:

  • A Dubai real estate mogul and former business partner of Donald Trump was sentenced to prison for collaborating on a deal that would swindle the Egyptian people out of millions of dollars — but then he turned to ISDS and got his prison sentence wiped away.
  • In El Salvador, a court found that a factory had poisoned a village — including dozens of children — with lead, failing for years to take government-ordered steps to prevent the toxic metal from seeping out. But the factory owners’ lawyers used ISDS to help the company dodge a criminal conviction and the responsibility for cleaning up the area and providing needed medical care.
  • Two financiers convicted of embezzling more than $300 million from an Indonesian bank used an ISDS finding to fend off Interpol, shield their assets, and effectively nullify their punishment.

When the US Congress votes on whether to give final approval to the sprawling Trans-Pacific Partnership, which President Barack Obama staunchly supports, it will be deciding on a massive expansion of ISDS.Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton oppose the overall treaty, but they have focused mainly on what they say would be the loss of American jobs. Clinton’s running mate, Tim Kaine, has voiced concern about ISDS in particular, and Sen. Elizabeth Warren has lambasted it. Last year, members of both houses of Congress tried to keep it out of the Pacific trade deal. They failed.

I wonder why they failed. Perhaps the following will provide some insight:

Source: secret global court

Leave a comment

Posted by on April 12, 2018 in evil



Shish-HUSH NEWS: The Murdering Of LAWYERS (Li-yers) … Find Out WHY and more:

Shish-HUSH NEWS: The Murdering Of LAWYERS (Li-yers) … Find Out WHY and more:

Husband of Georgia Assistant Attorney General found dead | WSB-TV

Jun 7, 2016

The husband of Georgia assistant attorney general was shot to death early Wednesday morning.

Shahriar Zolfaghari, 36, was found inside his car at the intersection of Rankin Street and Boulevard NE around 1 a.m.

Zolfaghari was sitting at the stoplight, but when the light turned green and his car didn’t move. The driver behind him got out to check on him, saw blood and realized Zolfaghari had been shot.

Read from original source:
May 14, 2016

Courtesy – LinkedIn
Ira Tobolowsky

DALLAS — Multiple sources tell News 8 that the death of Dallas lawyer Ira Tobolowsky is now being investigated as a homicide, and the house fire that killed him was no accident.

Sources say Tobolowsky had been doused with some sort of fuel and set on fire. His body was found Friday morning inside his burning garage on Kenshire Lane, in North Dallas near White Rock Creek.

News 8 has learned the case has been handed over to Dallas Fire-Rescue’s arson investigators. They are now looking into the possibility that someone from one of the attorney’s past cases may have had an ax to grind.

Read from source:

Body found near store was that of Casa Grande attorney

By KEVIN REAGAN, Staff Writer | Posted: Monday, March 7, 2016 1:45 pm

CASA GRANDE — A deceased man discovered behind Safeway last Thursday has been identified as a local attorney.

The Casa Grande Police Department originally identified the man as Paul Saucedo, though it has been confirmed the man’s last name was actually Sauceda.

Paul Rodrigo Sauceda, 36, lived in Casa Grande and previously worked as a criminal defense attorney. According to the State Bar of Arizona, Sauceda was suspended from practicing law in November 2015.

Rufino Sauceda, his father, said the family is waiting for an autopsy to be conducted on Paul’s body to determine his cause of death. Rufino said his son was not married and leaves behind two sons, aged 7 and 6.

Sauceda was a graduate of Arizona State University’s Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law and was admitted to the
Read more:

Body found on Bodega Bay beach is missing Santa Rosa attorney Steve Mitchell, sheriff says


The body of a man washed ashore and found Monday at a Sonoma County beach near Bodega Bay was identified as missing Santa Rosa attorney Steve Mitchell, officials said late Tuesday.

Mitchell, 56, who first was reported missing Feb. 13, is believed to have taken his own life after officials said they had discovered a suicide note and found Mitchell’s parked car above Furlong Gulch Beach, north of Bodega Bay.

His clothing and personal items including his cellphone were found at the beach.

Read more from source:
February 2, 2016

N.J. lawyer accused in sex for legal services sting found dead

By Dave Hutchinson | NJ Advance Media for
updated February 08, 2016 at 9:25 AM

RARITAN — A borough attorney accused of offering to represent female clients at a reduced rate in exchange for sexual favors was found dead in his vehicle Tuesday morning from an apparent self-inflicted gunshot wound to his chest, the Somerset County Prosecutor’s Office has confirmed.

Richard P. Schubach, 58, of Stockton was arrested and charged Monday with three counts of fourth-degree criminal sexual contact after he allegedly propositioned a female undercover detective in a sting operation, according to a news release issued Monday.

At approximately 6:51 a.m. Tuesday, Raritan Borough police responded to a welfare check on Schubach, who was thought to have been at his law office at 1124 Route 202, the prosecutor’s office stated.

Officers reported finding Schubach at 7:35 a.m. in his vehicle, which was parked outside an office complex adjacent to his law office. He was unresponsive with an apparent self-inflicted gunshot wound to his chest, authorities stated.

The Somerset County Prosecutor’s Office Major Crimes detectives responded to the scene, where Schubach was pronounced dead at 8:05 a.m. by Emergency Medical Technicians from Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital Somerset, the prosecutor’s office stated.

Continue from source:
Dec 7, 2015, 04:35 pm CST

Lawyer Found Dead As His Murder Trial Loomed Had Accidental Overdose, Coroner Says

A 60-year-old attorney found dead at his California home in early October, less than two months before his scheduled murder trial in the fatal shooting of his wife, died accidentally.

The Kern County coroner’s office ruled Monday that Mark Joseph Madrigali’s death was the result of drug intoxication and found he did not intend to cause his own death, the Bakersfield Californian reports.

His body was discovered by his defense lawyer, who went with another attorney to check on Madrigali after not hearing from him for a couple of days.

further reading from source:
Oct 16, 2015

Rock Hill lawyer, charged with stealing from clients, found dead of apparent suicide

Rock Hill attorney Horace Jones Jr. has appeared in many South Carolina courthouses over the past two decades, representing clients primarily on money matters.

On Monday morning, Jones, 45, was scheduled to be in a Jasper County courtroom – not as an attorney, but as a defendant facing a felony charge that he stole $600,000 from the descendants of slaves who had owned property near Hardeeville since just after emancipation after the Civil War.

If convicted on the breach of trust charge, Jones could have spent up to 10 years in prison.

Eight hours later and 200 miles away, York County sheriff’s deputies found a man’s body in a wooded area on Falls Road outside Rock Hill. Police and the coroner said the man suffered what appeared to be a gunshot wound, and they are investigating the death as a suicide.

Read More
Published 10/06/2015

Attorney charged with murdering his wife found dead at his home



A Bakersfield attorney, charged with his wife’s death two years ago, was found dead in his northeast Bakersfield home Tuesday morning.

Mark Madrigali was charged with first degree murder in the shooting of his wife, Trivia, at their home in June of 2013. He had pleaded not guilty to the charge.

Madrigali’s attorney H.A. Sala confirmed the death.

Sala said Madrigali was found dead inside his home in the 300 block of Acacia Street.

The Kern County Sheriff’s Office said deputies and the coroner were called to the home at 10:36 a.m. Tuesday.

Madrigali was a local defense attorney specializing in DUIs.

read more:
Long-Island NY- Suffolk County <
Oct 2, 2015

A woman found dead, Tricia Odierna in her Lake Grove home Thursday was a real estate attorney, records show.


Suffolk County police were investigating the death of the woman who neighbors identified as Tricia Odierna, though police had neither officially released her name nor provided further details Friday.

As police stood guard outside the Win Place home Friday afternoon, neighbor Rich Aichinger, 46, said he and his wife had known Odierna for three years.

“She was a nice person, a great person, a great friend and a good mom, ” Aichinger said.

Det. Lt. Kevin Beyrer, commanding officer of the homicide squad, told reporters Thursday evening that the body of the woman was discovered early that afternoon by someone who lives at the home. Beyrer said two adults and five children lived there.


Great Falls attorney found dead in Lewistown hotel room

Updated: Oct 06, 2015 2:26 PM PDT
By Aja Goare – MTN NewsCONNECT

LEWISTOWN -The death of a Great Falls attorney whose body was discovered in a Lewistown hotel is being investigated by authorities.

Jeffry M. Foster, 33, was a Dillon-native practicing law at the Davis, Hatley, Haffeman & Tighe, P.C. firm in Great Falls.

Law enforcement responded late Wednesday to a report of an unresponsive person at the Yogo Inn and found Foster dead.

Authorities from the Montana Division of Criminal Investigation were called to the scene to investigate.

At this time, no suspects or people of interest have been sought and authorities do not believe the death is suspicious.

The cause of death has not been released.

Foster, who graduated from University of Montana, practiced in the areas of insurance defense, criminal defense, health law, and business litigation, according to the law firm website.

May 27, 2015

D.C. lawyer’s killer pleads guilty to second-degree murder

By Keith L. Alexander May 28, 2015 

A D.C. woman admitted in court Thursday that she fatally stabbed and robbed a lawyer in an upscale hotel after answering an online ad he had posted seeking sex with a man.

Jamyra Gallmon, 21, pleaded guilty to second-degree murder in the Feb. 9 killing of David Messerschmitt, who worked at the international law firm DLA Piper. He was found dead in a room at the Donovan Hotel at Thomas Circle, stabbed repeatedly in the abdomen, groin and heart, police said.

During the hearing in D.C. Superior Court, Assistant U.S. Attorney Shana Fulton said Gallmon, plotting a robbery, tricked Messerschmitt into thinking she was a man, even e-mailing him a photo of a man’s torso. Gallmon brought zip ties that could be used to bind Messerschmitt and a small knife, prosecutors said.

Police have said Messerschmitt was in the hotel room when Gallmon arrived and had texted his wife that he would return to their Capitol Hill home in about an hour.

Gallmon’s roommate and alleged girlfriend, Dominique Johnson, 19, also of the District, pleaded guilty to a charge of conspiracy to commit robbery for her role in events on the day of the murder, officials said. 

Read more orig source:
February 12, 2015

Mysterious Murder: DC Lawyer Found Dead H Banking ad Ties To Greece And International World

By Live Free Or Die – All News Pipeline

A Washington DC area lawyer who was found stabbed to death in a glitzy DC area hotel room had ties to the country of Greece and the international banking world and in this particular mystery, authorities say they have a suspect as shared in the newly released video below.

While not every mysterious murder is part of a ‘conspiracy’, a look into Messerschmitt’s past gives us reason to believe this latest murdered lawyer may have known something that others didn’t want him (and the rest of us) to know with Greece possibly soon leaving the Euro and the financial world falling to shambles.

Back in 2012, Messerschmitt got married and traveled to Greece on his honeymoon as shared on this wedding guest registry; the Washington Post points out this connection of Messerschmitt to Greece as well. While it is not known at this time if the lawyer did business in Greece, a look at his deleted but cached DLA Piper profile page and LinkedIn page show us he was deeply involved with ‘multinational Fortune 500 companies’, financial services, investment banking, technology, aerospace, pharmaceuticals, energy and much more.

Continue read from source:
June 26, 2014

KENTUCKY- lawyer fatally shot outside office, gunman arrested: cops – NY Daily News

A prominent Kentucky defense attorney was shot and killed outside his office Friday —after an angry gunman confronted the lawyer for not helping with a problem, officials said.

Mark Stanziano had just reached his office near the Somerset courthouse when the alleged gunman, Clinton Inabnitt, approached him about 9:15 a.m., Police Capt. Shannon Smith told the Advocate Messenger.

Inabnitt, 40 — who was apparently angry at the lawyer for not helping with a problem and blamed him for laughing about the issue — suddenly opened fire, striking Stanziano several times in front of horrified bystanders, Smith said.

read more:
May 22, 2013

Slain Southlake Cartel Lawyer Knew ‘He Had Been Found’

Northeast Tarrant

SouthLake-The Mexican drug cartel lawyer fatally shot at an upscale Southlake shopping center in 2013 was in fear “because he had been found by people who wanted to kill him,” according to new court documents filed Monday.

Prosecutors also alleged that conspirators tried early in their search to get the U.S. government to deport Juan Jesus Guerrero Chapa, reportedly the lawyer for the onetime leader of the Gulf cartel.

Guerrero was shot multiple times with a 9 mm handgun May 22, 2013, as he and his wife returned to their Range Rover after shopping at Southlake Town Square.

Jesus Gerardo Ledezma-Cepeda, 59, and his son, Jesus Gerardo Ledezma-Campano, 32, and Jose Luis Cepeda-Cortes are scheduled to go on trial in the killing April 25 in Fort Worth. They have been jailed since their arrests in September 2014.

read more:

March 26, 2012



A second prominent attorney targeted in a federal investigation of fraud and corruption at homeowners associations has turned up dead in less than a week, creating unease among cooperating witnesses.

Las Vegas attorney David Amesbury was found dead by apparent hanging Sunday night, five days after attorney Nancy Quon was found dead in the bathtub of her Henderson home.

Authorities do not suspect foul play in either case and are initially treating the deaths as suicides.

But one defense attorney said the deaths are generating a growing sense of anxiety among those named in the federal investigation, which alleges a massive scheme to take over homeowners association boards and then steer legal and construction contracts to specific firms.

“Some of the witnesses are extremely concerned about their well-being and safety,” said the defense lawyer, who was involved in plea negotiations with the government. “People are dying here.”
Amesbury, 57, who pleaded guilty and agreed to cooperate with federal prosecutors, was found dead Sunday night in Grass Valley, Calif. Sources said his brother, Thomas Amesbury, found the body hanging in a shed.

The Nevada County coroner’s office in Northern California won’t issue a formal ruling on Amesbury’s cause of death for about two months, Chief Deputy Coroner Paul Schmidt said.

“There is no evidence of foul play or any suspicious circumstances; however, (the death is) still under investigation,” Schmidt said.

Quon, 51, a major player in the scheme whom prosecutors were looking to indict, was found dead in the bathtub of her southeast valley condominium at The District on March 20.

The official causes of both deaths won’t be known until toxicology reports are complete. Henderson police said foul play is not suspected in Quon’s death.


Two other people who attracted the interest of authorities in the sweeping federal investigation also have died under unusual circumstances.

Former Las Vegas police officer Christopher Van Cleef shot himself to death a few days after a September 2008 FBI raid in the investigation. A former Vistana homeowners association board member, identified as Robbi Castro, died in 2010 of a drug overdose.

“All of these deaths are just too much of a coincidence,” said Wanda Murray, a former Vistana board member who helped expose corruption at the association. “None of them make sense to any of us.”

Continue reading from source:
January 29, 2012

Matthew Geary, former deputy commonwealth’s attorney for the city and GOP candidate for Henrico Commonwealth’s Attorney, was found dead this afternoon.

Richmond Virginia – Henrico County

Henrico Police found Geary at a house in the 2200 block of Lauderdale Drive in Short Pump around 1 p.m. with a gunshot wound to the head. Police are investigating his death as an apparent suicide, according to the Richmond Times-Dispatch.

Geary, who lost his bid for commonwealth’s attorney in November, found himself on the outs with the county’s Republican leadership after acknowledging an extramarital affair. Despite an attempt by Republican leaders to oust Geary as the GOP candidate, he refused to drop out.

Earlier this afternoon, Henrico County Commonwealth’s Attorney Shannon Taylor, who defeated Geary and indendepent candidate Bill Janis just four months ago, issued a statement:

read more:


Prominent Los Angeles Attorney Fatally Shot at His Home | Fox News

Jeffrey Tidus was shot Monday around 8:30 p.m. as he was fetching a laptop from his car. His wife heard a single gunshot ring out and rushed outside to find him lying in the driveway behind his blue Toyota Prius, sheriff’s homicide Lt. Dave Dolson said.

read more

Prominent Attorney Doug Ring Found Dead | NBC Southern California

Nov 12, 2009

Douglas Ring, 61, is both a private investor and an attorney. Ring was married to former L.A. City Councilwoman Cindy Miscikowski.

Investor and attorney Douglas R. Ring was found dead Thursday in a home in Brentwood, authorities said.
A 911 call was made from the home in the 300 block of Fordyce Road at 12:10 p.m., and Los Angeles police officers and firefighters responded to the location, Los Angeles Police Department Officer Rosario Herrera said.


Attorney Barry Levin Found Dead In Cemetery

July 8, 2001

High-profile criminal attorney Barry Levin, who helped handle Erik Menendez’s murder defense and more recently represented actor Robert Blake, was found dead Saturday of a single gunshot wound to the head at a veterans cemetery, officials said.

Levin, 54, appeared to have committed suicide, said FBI spokesman Matthew McLaughlin. Levin suffered from Gaucher’s disease, said Ron Dorfman, a fellow attorney who spoke at a news conference Saturday evening at the cemetery.

Read more from source:





Sengbe Pieh, leader of the La Amistad uprising, pictured as a Muslim (1839). Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library[3]

On June 27, 1839, La Amistad(“Friendship”), a Spanish vessel, departed from the port of Havana, Cuba (then a Spanish colony), for the Province of Puerto Principe, also in Cuba. The masters of La Amistad were the ship’s captain Ramón Ferrer, José Ruiz, and Pedro Montez, all Spanish nationals. With Ferrer was his personal slave Antonio. Ruiz was transporting 49 Africans, entrusted to him by the governor-general of Cuba. Montez held four additional Africans, also entrusted to him by the governor-general.[4] As the voyage normally took only four days, the crew had brought four days’ worth of rations, not anticipating the strong headwind that slowed the schooner. On July 2, 1839, one of the Africans, Cinqué, freed himself and the other captives using a file that had been found and kept by a woman who, like them, had been on the Tecora (the ship that had transported them illegally as slaves from Africa to Cuba).

The Mende Africans killed the ship’s cook, Celestino, who had told them that they were to be killed and eaten by their captors. The slaves also killed Captain Ferrer; the struggle resulted as well in the deaths of two Africans. Two sailors escaped in a lifeboat. The Africans spared the lives of the two masters who could navigate the ship, José Ruiz and Pedro Montez, upon the condition that they would return the ship to Africa. They also spared the captain’s personal slave, Antonio, a creole,[5] and used him as an interpreter with Ruiz and Montez.[6]

The crew deceived the Africans and steered La Amistad north along the coast of the United States, where the ship was sighted repeatedly. They dropped anchor half a mile off eastern Long Island, New York, on August 26, 1839, at Culloden Point. Some of the Africans went ashore to procure water and provisions from the hamlet of Montauk. The vessel was discovered by the United States revenue cutter USS Washington. Lieutenant Thomas R. Gedney, commanding the cutter, saw some of the Africans on shore and, assisted by his officers and crew, took custody of La Amistad and the Africans.[7]

Taking them to the port of New London, Connecticut, he presented officials with a written claim for his property rights under admiralty law for salvage of the vessel, the cargo, and the Africans. Gedney allegedly chose to land in Connecticut because slavery was still technically legal there, unlike in New York. He hoped to profit from sale of the Africans.[8] Gedney transferred the captured Africans into the custody of the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut, at which time legal proceedings began.[4]


  • Lt Thomas R. Gedney filed a libel (a lawsuit in admiralty law) for rights to the African captives and cargo on board La Amistad as property seized on the high seas.[4]
  • Henry Green and Pelatiah Fordhamfiled a libel for salvage, claiming that they had been the first to discover La Amistad.[4]
  • José Ruiz and Pedro Montez filed libels requesting that their property of “slaves” and cargo be returned to them.[4]
  • The Office of the United States Attorney for the District of Connecticut, representing the Spanish Government, libelled that the “slaves”, cargo, and vessel be returned to Spain as its property.[9]
  • Antonio Vega, vice-consul of Spain, libelled for “the slave Antonio,” on the grounds that this man was his personal property.[10]
  • The Africans denied that they were slaves or property, and that the court could not “return” them to the control of the government of Spain.[10]
  • José Antonio Tellincas, with Aspeand Laca, claimed goods on board La Amistad.[11][clarification needed]


As the British had entered into a treaty with Spain prohibiting the slave trade south of the equator, they considered it a matter of international Law that the United States release the Africans. They applied diplomatic pressure to achieve this, including invoking the Treaty of Ghent with the US, which jointly enforced their respective prohibitions against the international slave trade.

While the legal battle continued, Dr. Richard R. Madden, “who served on behalf of the British commission to suppress the African slave trade in Havana,” arrived to testify.[12] He made a deposition “that some twenty-five thousand slaves were brought into Cuba every year – with the wrongful compliance of, and personal profit by, Spanish officials.”[12] Madden also “told the court that his examinations revealed that the defendants were brought directly from Africa and could not have been residents of Cuba,” as the Spanish had claimed.[12][page needed] Madden (who later had an audience with Queen Victoria concerning the case) conferred with the British Minister in Washington, D.C., Henry Stephen Fox, who pressured U.S. Secretary of State John Forsyth on behalf “of her Majesty’s Government.”[13]

Fox wrote “…Great Britain is also bound to remember that the law of Spain, which finally prohibited the slave-trade throughout the Spanish dominions, from the date of the 30th of May, 1820, the provisions of which law are contained in the King of Spain’s royal cedula of the 19th December, was passed, in compliance with a treaty obligation to that effect, by which the Crown of Spain had bound itself to the Crown of Great Britain, and for which a valuable compensation, in return, was given by Great Britain to Spain; as may be seen by reference to the 2d, 3d, and 4th articles of a public treaty concluded between Great Britain and Spain on the 23d of September, 1817.

“It is next to be observed, that Great Britain and the United States have mutually engaged themselves to each other, by the 10th article of the treaty of Ghent, to use their best endeavors for the entire abolition of the African slave-trade; and there can be no doubt of the firm intention of both parties religiously to fulfill the terms of that engagement.

“Now, the unfortunate Africans whose case is the subject of the present representation, have been thrown by accidental circumstances into the hands of the authorities of the United States Government whether these persons shall recover the freedom to which they are entitled, or whether they shall be reduced to slavery, in violation of known laws and contracts publicly passed, prohibiting the continuance of the African slave-trade by Spanish subjects.

“It is under these circumstance that her Majesty’s Government anxiously hope that the President of the United States will find himself empowered to take such measures, in behalf of the aforesaid Africans, as shall secure to them the possession of their liberty, to which, without doubt they are by law entitled.”[13]

Forsyth responded that under the separation of powers in the U.S. Constitution, the President could not influence the court case. He said that the question of whether the “negroes of the Amistad” had been enslaved in violation of the Treaty was still an open one, “and this Government would with great reluctance erect itself into a tribunal to investigate such questions between two friendly sovereigns.”[13] He noted that when the facts were determined, they could be taken into account. He suggested that if the Court found for Spanish rights of property, the Africans would be returned to Cuba. At that point, Great Britain and Spain could argue their questions of law and treaties between them.[13]

 .  Rebellion at sea and capture

Secretary of State Forsyth requested from the Spanish Minister, Chevalier de Argaiz, “a copy of the laws now in force in the island of Cuba  to slavery.”[13] In response, the Captain General of Cuba sent Argaiz “everything on the subject, which had been determined since the treaty concluded in 1818 between Spain and England”.[13]The Minister also expressed dismay that the Africans had not already been returned to Spanish control.[13]

The Spanish maintained that none but a Spanish court could have jurisdiction over the case. The Spanish minister stated “I do not, in fact, understand how a foreign court of justice can be considered competent to take cognizance of an offence committed on board of a Spanish vessel, by Spanish subjects, and against Spanish subjects, in the waters of a Spanish territory; for it was committed on the coasts of this island, and under the flag of this nation.”[13] The Minister noted that the Spanish had recently turned over American sailors “belonging to the crew of the American vessel ‘William Engs'”, whom it had tried by request of their captain and the American consul. The sailors had been found guilty of mutiny and sentenced to “four years’ confinement in a fortress.”[13] Other American sailors had protested this and when the American ambassador raised the issue with the Spaniards, on March 20, 1839 “her Majesty, having taken into consideration all the circumstances, decided that the said seamen should be placed at the disposition of the American consul, seeing that the offence was committed in one of the vessels and under the flag of his nation, and not on shore.”[13] The Spaniards asked how, if America had demanded that these sailors in an American ship be turned over to them despite being in a Spanish port, they could now try the Spanish mutineers.

The Spaniards held that just as America had ended its importation of African slaves but maintained a legal domestic population, so too had Cuba. It was up to Spanish courts to determine “whether the Negroes in question” were legal or illegal slaves under Spanish law, “but never can this right justly belong to a foreign country.”[13]

The Spaniards maintained that, even if it was believed that the Africans were being held as slaves in violation of “the celebrated treaty of humanity concluded between Spain and Great Britain in 1835”, this would be a violation of “the laws of Spain; and the Spanish Government, being as scrupulous as any other in maintaining the strict observance of the prohibitions imposed on, or the liberties allowed to, its subjects by itself, will severely chastise those of them who fail in their duties.”[13]


The Spaniards pointed out that by American law the jurisdiction over a “vessel on the high seas, in time of peace, engaged in a lawful voyage, is, according to the laws of nations, under the exclusive jurisdiction of the State to which her flag belongs; as much so as if constituting a part of its own domain. …if such ship or vessel should be forced, by stress of weather, or other unavoidable cause, into the port and under the jurisdiction of a friendly Power, she, and her cargo, and persons on board, with their property, and all the rights belonging to their personal relations as established by the laws of the State to which they belong, would be placed under the protection which the laws of nations extend to the unfortunate under such circumstances.”[13] The Spaniards demanded that the U.S. “apply these proper principles to the case of the schooner Amistad.”[13]

The Spanish were further encouraged that their view would win out when U.S. Senator John C. Calhoun and the Senate’s Committee of Foreign Relations on April 15, 1840 issued a statement announcing complete “conformity between the views entertained by the Senate, and the arguments urged by the [Spanish Minister] Chevalier de Argaiz” concerning La Amistad.[13]

Applicable lawEdit

The Spanish categorized the Africans as property to have the case fall under Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795. They protested when Judge William Jayconstrued a statement by their Minister as seeming to demand “the surrender of the negroes apprehended on board the schooner Amistad, as murderers, and not as property; that is to say founding his demand on the law of nations, and not on the treaty of 1795.”[13]

The Spanish pointed out that the statement Jay was referring to was one where the Spanish minister was “speaking of the crime committed by the negroes [slave revolt], and the punishment which they merit”. They went on to point out that the Minister had stated that a payment to compensate the owners “would be a slender compensation; for though the property should remain, as it ought to remain, unimpaired, public vengeance would be frustrated”.[13]

Judge Jay took issue with the Spanish Minister’s request that the Africans be turned over to Spanish authorities (which seemed to imply that they were fugitives instead of misbehaving property), because the 1795 treaty said that property should be restored directly to the control of its owners. The Spanish denied that this meant that the Minister had waived the contention that they were property.

By insisting that the case fell under the treaty of 1795, the Spanish were invoking the Supremacy Clause of the U.S. Constitution, which would put the clauses of the treaty above the state laws of Connecticut or New York, where the ship had been taken into custody, “no one who respects the laws of the country ought to oppose the execution of the treaty, which is the supreme law of the country.”[13] The case was already in the federal district court.

The Spanish also sought to avoid talk about the Law of Nations, as some of their opponents argued that America had a duty under the Law of Nations to treat the Africans with the same deference they would accord any other foreign sailors.

John Quincy Adams later argued this issue before the Supreme Court in 1841, saying,

The Africans were in possession, and had the presumptive right of ownership; they were in peace with the United States:…they were not pirates; they were on a voyage to their native homes…the ship was theirs, and being in immediate communication with the shore, was in the territory of the State of New York; or, if not, at least half the number were actually on the soil of New York, and entitled to all the provisions of the law of nations, and the protection and comfort which the laws of that State secure to every human being within its limits.[14]

When pressed with questions concerning the Law of Nations, the Spanish referred to a concept of Hugo Grotius (credited as one of the originators of the Law of Nations). Specifically, they noted that “the usage, then, of demanding fugitives from a foreign Government, is confined…to crimes which affect the Government and such as are of extreme atrocity.”[13]

Leave a comment

Posted by on July 31, 2017 in evil, injustice



Turkey coup live: Erdogan government reasserts itself as 2,700 judges purged – as it happened | The Independent

Turkey coup live: Erdogan government reasserts itself as 2,700 judges purged – as it happened | The Independent



%d bloggers like this: