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“45 Years After Legendary Attica Prison Uprising, New Book Reveals State Role in Deadly Standoff” 

“45 Years After Legendary Attica Prison Uprising, New Book Reveals State Role in Deadly Standoff” 

The Attica Prison riot, also known as the Attica Prison rebellion or Attica Prison uprising, occurred at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, New York, United States in 1971. Based upon prisoners’ demands for better living conditions and political rights, the riot was one of the most well-known and significant uprisings of the Prisoners’ Rights Movement. On September 9, 1971, two weeks after the killing of George Jackson at San Quentin State Prison, about 1,000 of the Attica prison’s approximately 2,200 inmates rioted and took control of the prison, taking 42 staff hostage.

http://www.newyorkdaileynews.com

During the following four days of negotiations, authorities agreed to 28 of the prisoners’ demands,[citation needed] but would not agree to demands for complete amnesty from criminal prosecution for the prison takeover or for the removal of Attica’s superintendent. By the order of Governor Nelson Rockefeller, state police took back control of the prison. When the uprising was over, at least 43 people were dead, including ten correctional officers and civilian employees, and 33 inmates.

Rockefeller, who refused to visit the prisoners during the rebellion, stated that the prisoners “carried out the cold-blood killings they had threatened from the outset,”[1] despite only one of the deaths being attributed to the prisoners. New York Times writer Fred Ferretti said the rebellion concluded in “mass deaths that four days of taut negotiations had sought to avert”.[2]

Throughout the negotiations, there was leadership and organization among the prisoners. Frank “Big Black” Smith was appointed as head of security, and he also kept the hostages and the observers safe.[5] Additionally, an ardent orator, 21-year-old Elliott James “L.D.” Barkley, was a strong force during the negotiations, speaking with great articulation to the inmates, the camera crews, and outsiders at home.[6] Barkley, just days away from his scheduled release at the time of the riot, was killed during the recapturing of the prison. Assemblyman Arthur Eve testified that Barkley was alive after the prisoners had surrendered and the state regained control; another inmate stated that the officers searched him out, yelling for Barkley, and shot him in the back.[6][7]

Police shooting down at prisoners in the yard. (Photo credit by William Kunstler: Disturbing the Universe)

We are men! We are not beasts and we do not intend to be beaten or driven as such. The entire prison populace, that means each and every one of us here, have set forth to change forever the ruthless brutalization and disregard for the lives of the prisoners here and throughout the United States. What has happened here is but the sound before the fury of those who are oppressed. We will not compromise on any terms except those terms that are agreeable to us. We’ve called upon all the conscientious citizens of America to assist us in putting an end to this situation that threatens the lives of not only us, but of each and every one of you, as well.

Elliott James “L.D.” Barkley, 1971

As speakers like Barkley raised morale, the rebels’ negotiating team of prisoners proposed their requests to the commissioner. The Attica Liberation Faction Manifesto Of Demands is a compilation of complaints written by the Attica prisoners, which speak directly to the “sincere people of society”. It includes 27 demands, such as better medical treatment, fair visitation rights, and an end to physical brutality. The prisoners also requested better sanitation, improved food quality, and one set of rules for the state among numerous other demands. The manifesto specifically assigns the power to negotiate to five inmates: Donald Noble, Peter Butler, Frank Lott, Carl Jones-El, and Herbert Blyden X. Additionally, the document specifically lists out “vile and vicious slave masters” who oppressed the prisoners such as the New York governor, New York Corrections, and even the United States Courts.[8]

The prisoners continued to unsuccessfully negotiate with Correctional Services Commissioner Russell G. Oswald, and then later with a team of observers that included Tom Wicker, an editor of the New York Times, James Ingram of the Michigan Chronicle, state senator John Dunne, state representative Arthur Eve, civil rights lawyer William Kunstler, and others. Prisoners requested the presence of Minister Louis Farrakhan, National Representative of the Nation of Islam, but he declined.[9]

The situation may have been further complicated by Governor Rockefeller’s refusal to come to the scene of the riot and meet with the inmates,[4] although some later evaluations of the incident would postulate that his absence from the scene actually prevented the situation from deteriorating.[10]Negotiations broke down, and Oswald was unable to make further concessions to the inmates. However, he did not tell them that negotiations had ended and he would take the prison back by force. He even said: “I want to continue negotiations with you.”[11] Oswald later called Governor Rockefeller and again begged him to come to the prison to calm the riot. After the governor’s refusal, Oswald stated that he would order the State Police to retake the facility by force. Rockefeller agreed with Oswald’s decision. This agreement was later criticized by a commission created by Rockefeller to study the riot and its aftermath.[12]

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“Flight 93 – Trailer [2006]” 

“Flight 93 – Trailer [2006]” 

United Airlines Flight 93 was a domestic scheduled passenger flightthat was hijacked by four Al-Qaedaterrorists on board, as part of the September 11 attacks. It crashed into a field in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, during an attempt by the passengers and crew to regain control. All 44 people aboard were killed, including the four hijackers, but no one on the ground was injured. The aircraft involved, a Boeing 757–222, was flying United Airlines‘ daily scheduled morning flight from Newark International Airport in New Jersey to San Francisco International Airport in California.

United Airlines Flight 93
A439, Flight 93 National Memorial, Stonycreek Township, Pennsylvania, USA, memorial sign, flight path.jpg

UA 93’s flight path on September 11, 2001, from Newark, New Jersey, to Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania.

Suicide hijacking summary
Date Tuesday, September 11, 2001
Summary Terrorist suicidehijacking
Site Field near the Diamond T. Mine, a coal strip mine in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Passengers 37 (including 4 hijackers)
Crew 7
Fatalities 44 (including 4 hijackers)
Survivors None
Aircraft type Boeing 757–222
Operator United Airlines
Registration N591UA
Flight origin Newark Int’l Airport (now Newark Liberty Int’l Airport)
Destination San Francisco Int’l Airport

The hijackers stormed the aircraft’s cockpit approximately 46 minutes after takeoff. The pilot and first officer took measures, such as de-activating the autopilot, to hinder the hijackers. However, Ziad Jarrah, who had trained as a pilot, took control of the aircraft and diverted it back toward the east coast, in the direction of Washington, D.C. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Ramzi bin al-Shibh have claimed that the intended target was the Capitol Building.[1]

After the hijackers took control of the plane, several passengers and flight attendants learned from phone calls that suicide attacks had already been made by hijacked airliners on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia. Many of the passengers then attempted to regain control of the aircraft from the hijackers. During the struggle, the plane crashed into a field near a reclaimed strip mine in Stonycreek Township, near Indian Lake and Shanksville, about 65 miles (105 km) southeast of Pittsburghand 130 miles (210 km) northwest of Washington, D.C. A few people witnessed the impact from the ground, and news agencies began reporting the event within an hour.

Of the four aircraft hijacked on September 11 – the others were American Airlines Flight 11, United Airlines Flight 175 and American Airlines Flight 77 – United Airlines Flight 93 was the only one that did not reach its hijackers’ intended target. Vice President Dick Cheney, in the Presidential Emergency Operations Center deep under the White House, upon learning of the premature crash, is reported to have said, “I think an act of heroism just took place on that plane.”[2]

A temporary memorial was built near the crash site soon after the attacks.[3]Construction of a permanent Flight 93 National Memorial was dedicated on September 10, 2011,[4] and the concrete and glass visitor center situated on a hill overlooking the site[5] was opened exactly four years later.[66

https://youtu.be/Vk2bbLfyA4A

 
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Posted by on October 6, 2017 in docu-drama

 

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“Ku Klux Klan – A Secret History” 

“Ku Klux Klan – A Secret History” 

Featured omage: http://www.bluejersey.com/tag/5876/

The Ku Klux Klan /ˈk ˈklʌks ˈklæn, ˈkj/,[7] commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan, is the name of three distinct movements in the United Statesthat have advocated extremistreactionary positions such as white supremacy, white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in later iterations—Nordicism,[8][9] anti-Catholicism[10][11] and antisemitism.[11]Historically, the KKK used terrorism—both physical assault and murder—against groups or individuals whom they opposed.[12] All three movements have called for the “purification” of American society and all are considered right-wing extremist organizations.[13][14][15][16]

Ku Klux Klan
KKK.svg

Ku Klux Klan emblem

The first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s, then died out by the early 1870s. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South during the Reconstruction Era, especially by using violence against African Americanleaders. With numerous chapters across the South, it was suppressed around 1871, through federal law enforcement. Members made their own, often colorful, costumes: robes, masks and conical hats, designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities.[17][18]

The second group was founded in 1915 and it flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, particularly in urban areas of the Midwest and West. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it opposed Catholics and Jews, while also stressing its opposition to the Catholic Church at a time of high immigration from mostly Catholic nations of southern and eastern Europe.[6] This second organization adopted a standard white costume and used code words which were similar to those used by the first Klan, while adding cross burningsand mass parades to intimidate others.

The third and current manifestation of the KKK emerged after 1950, in the form of localized and isolated groups that use the KKK name. They have focused on opposition to the Civil Rights Movement, often using violence and murder to suppress activists. It is classified as a hate group by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center.[19] As of 2016, the Anti-Defamation League puts total Klan membership nationwide at around 3,000, while the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) puts it at 6,000 members total.[20]

The second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent references to America’s “Anglo-Saxon” blood, hearkening back to 19th-century nativism.[21] Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality, virtually every Christian denominationhas officially denounced the KKK.[22]

 
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Posted by on September 10, 2017 in American issues, documentary

 

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“The Great Depression: Crash Course US History #33” 

“The Great Depression: Crash Course US History #33” 

Featured image: emaze.co

The Great Depression lasted from 1929 to 1939, and was the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world. It began afterthe stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors.

Families were driven out of the once fertile great plains by massive dust clouds–one that rose to 10,000 feet and reached as far as New York City.

The Dust Bowl refers to the drought-stricken Southern Plains region of the United States, which suffered severe dust storms during a dry period in the 1930s. As high winds and choking dust swept the region from Texas to Nebraska, people and livestock were killed and crops failed across the entire region. 

The Dust Bowl intensified the crushing economic impacts of the Great Depression and drove many farming families on a desperate migration in search of work and better living conditions.

Source: http://www.history.com/topics/thegreatdepression/thedustbowl

“By the mid-1930s, state and federal governments also were operating them. Soup kitchensserved mostly soup and bread.Soup was economical because water could be added to serve more people, if necessary. At the outset of the Depression, Al Capone, the notorious gangster from Chicago, established the firstsoup kitchenDepression-era Soup Kitchens – United States American History
http://www.u-s-history.com › pages

              Image: thesleuthjournal.com

               Image:  Oldphotoguy.com

                                Image: Dailymail.uk


The Affect of the Great Depression on Children


by Emily Wang


A Soup Line (Notice the Kids in Front)
        During the Great Depression, children suffered a lot. They no longer had the joys and freedoms of childhood, and often shared their parents’ burdens and issues on money. For Christmas and birthdays, very few children were able to have fancy toy. Some families made gifts themselves, but many others could not afford food at all. For most people, the only way to celebrate holidays with gifts, were to window-shop. Since children lacked food, they often suffered from malnutrition.

        Sometimes, children left home. They either did not want to burden their families,were tired of their boring and poor living, or just wanted an adventure. Some left with their families’ blessings, but others escaped from the house overnight. Most of them traveled on boxcars, sections of trains, and helped each other. They shared routes, tips, and information. Children got on boxcars after trains started moving, so it was very possible for them to get injured if they missed their footing. In one case, a northern white boy, who had heard of segeration, but had not experienced it, helped on another, near midnight. They talked through the night of their exciting adventure, and when daybreak came, the boy realized his friend was African-American.
        If a person was caught riding a boxcar, he or she would be taken off it, and depending on state rule, possibly punished. Some states were cruel, sentecing community labor, and others were nicer, letting the person stay overnight with food supply. In between, were states that just escorted the person to  the state border, and telling them to never return again. Girls also were travelers. Some disguised themselves as boys, but some found advantages as being a girl. Some nice people would give girls the food and board they could offer that would not be given to boys.
        Children of the Great Depression suffered heavily physically, with diseases like malnutrion, but even more suffered mentally, knowing that in a split second, within the blink of an eye, their lives might just change.

Source:http://informationgreatdepression.weebly.com/affect-on-children.html

 
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Posted by on September 9, 2017 in American issues, documentary

 

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“Native American Indians:  Stolen Lands and Broken Treaties” 

“Native American Indians:  Stolen Lands and Broken Treaties” 

Featured image:  http://wizzyschool.com

TREATIES MADE, TREATIES BROKEN

Kelly wrote that colonization created the condition of poverty on many American Indian reservations today.  Many Americans have misperceptions that poverty should not exist on reservations because Native people’s basic needs are taken care of under treaties.

Over 500 treaties were made with American Indian tribes, primarily for land cessations, but 500 treaties were also broken, changed or nullified when it served the government’s interests.

The video below about policies toward the Lakota gives many examples of this, and the practice was not limited to tribes in the Plains. It is also true that some tribes have no treaties and many tribes remain unrecognized as tribes by the federal government; this leaves them without reservation trust land and federal programming. The fact is that many Native American people are suffering and we should all care about that.

http://blog.nativepartnership.org/treaties-made-treaties-broken/


 
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Posted by on September 4, 2017 in American issues, documentary

 

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Frederick DOUGLASS (a narration)

Frederick DOUGLASS (a narration)

Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey; c. February 1818[4] – February 20, 1895) was an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman. After escaping from slaveryin Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his dazzling oratory[5] and incisive antislavery writings. In his time, he was described by abolitionists as a living counter-example to slaveholders’ arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens.[6][7]Northerners at the time found it hard to believe that such a great orator had once been a slave.[8]

Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass portrait.jpg

Douglass, c. 1874

Born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey
c. February 1818[1]
Talbot County, Maryland, U.S.
Died February 20, 1895 (aged 77)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Cause of death Massive heart attack or stroke

 

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“The Move Organization, John Africa and The Bombing of West Philly – 5/13/85” 

“The Move Organization, John Africa and The Bombing of West Philly – 5/13/85” 

American Neighborhood

11 Things You Didn’t Know About The Time Police Bombed An American neighborhood.

Written by a Newsone staff member.

On May 13 1985, a bomb was dropped on a row house in Philadelphia, unleashing a relentless fire that eventually burned down 61 houses, killed 11 people (including five children), and injured Neighborhood.

The fire department stood by idly. The Philadelphia Police Department did the same. The fire raged on, swallowing up home after home until more than 200 were without shelter.

It’s a shameful part of recent American history that’s somehow been buried under 31 years and other destructions that have fallen on the city of Philadelphia. NewsOne decided to take a trip back in time to explore what happened the day America bombed its own people.

Here are 11 things you should know about the MOVE Philadelphia bombing:

– Move is a Philadelphia-based Black liberation group that preached revolution and advocated the return to a natural lifestyle. They lived communally and vowed to lead a life uninterrupted by the government, police, or technology. They were passionate supporters of animal rights. Members adopted vegan diets and the surname “Africa.” Often times they would engage in public demonstrations related to issues they deemed important.

– MOVE did, however, have a past with the police. Since inception in 1972, the group was looked at as a threat to the Philadelphia Police Department. In 1978, police raided their Powelton Village homes and as a result, one police officer died after being shot in the head. Nine MOVE members were arrested, charged with third-degree murder, and sent to prison. They argued that the police officer was shot in the back of his head on his way into the home, challenging the claim that he was shot by members inside the house. Eventually the group relocated to their infamous house on 6221 Osage Street.

– There are differing reports about the group and how troublesome they actually were. According to the AP, neighbors complained about their house on Osage, which was barricaded with plywood and allegedly contained a multitude of weapons. It has been said that the group built a giant wooden bunker on the roof and used a bullhorn to “scream obscenities at all hours of the night,” angering those living in nearby row houses. Eventually, they turned to city officials for help, which put into motion the events of May 13, 1985.

– On that day, armed police, the fire department, and city officials gathered at the house in an attempt to clear it out and arrest MOVE members who had been indicted for crimes like parole violation and illegal possession of firearms. When police tossed tear gas canisters into the home, MOVE members fired back. In turn, the police discharged their guns.

– Eventually a police helicopter flew over the home and dropped two bombs on the row house. A ferocious blaze followed.

– Witnesses and MOVE members say that when members started to run out of the burning structure to escape a fiery death, police continued to fire their weapons.

– The fire department delayed putting out the flames. After the blaze, they claimed they didn’t want to put their men in harm’s way, because MOVE members were still firing their guns. But MOVE members and witnesses say the wait was deliberate.

– In the end, 11 people, including MOVE’s founder John Africa, were dead. Five children died in the home.

– This is the only child survivor (see picture below). His name is Birdie Africa, but it was later changed to Michael Ward. He ran out of the burning house naked and covered in flames. He survived his third-degree burns and went on to live a normal life, although he was scarred forever by the lifelong burns on his abdomen, arms, and face.

– Michael Ward was found dead on Friday, Sept. 20, 2013 in the jacuzzi aboard a cruise ship in the Caribbean. He was on vacation with his family. Initial autopsy reports say he drowned.

– In the end, no one from the city government was criminally charged.

Phill, Independent research | PHOTO CREDIT: Getty Museum

MORE ASTOUNDING FACTS:

Pennsylvania State Police helicopter took off from the command post at 63rd and Walnut, flew a few times over 6221 Osage Avenue, and then hovered 60 feet above the two-story house in the Black, middle-class West Philadelphia neighborhood. After radioing firefighters on the ground and lighting the bomb’s 45-second fuse — and with the official approval of Mayor W. Wilson Goode and at the insistence of Police Commissioner Gregore SamborLt. Frank Powell, chief of Philadelphia’s bomb disposal unit, tossed the bomb onto the roof of the bunker.

The resulting blast, lead to a large, bright orange ball of fire that reached 7,200 degrees Fahrenheit. The aftermath left 11 dead (including five completely innocent and defenseless children) and the incineration of 61 homes. Among the dead were, 7-year-old Tomasa, 9-year-old Delicia, 10-year-old Phil, 11-year-old Netta, 13-year-old Tree, and 25-year-old Rhonda.

Once the bomb was dropped on the MOVE house, the city’s fire department that was already on the scene, was instructed to stand down and let the resulting fire destroy the building. The fire department stood idly by, as the intense fire spread and destroyed a total of 61 homes, most of them owned by residents who were forced to watch helplessly as their houses were consumed by fire. Although many of the block’s residents had complained about being besieged by MOVE members spreading their beliefs using a bullhorn, these same residents tried to stop the police siege of their community when they saw the police force that was deployed.

philly bombingIn the wake of the bombing, the Philadelphia Special Investigation Commission (better known as the MOVE Commission) was formed to investigate

the bombing. After extensive interviews, many of which were of police officers, the Commission said what took place was “criminally evil.” There is eyewitness testimony and evidence, to indicate that the people fleeing the burning building were shot at and shot by the police, as they exited into the back alley of the building. The Commission also stated on record, that this would never had happened “had the MOVE house and its occupants been situated in a comparable white neighborhood.MOVE Commission Chairman William Brown, stated, “I firmly believe that more people got out than Birdie and Ramona and that’s something that still nags at me. I believe that someone, someday will deliver a deathbed confession …” And the Commission itself noted in Finding Number 28 of its official report that “police gunfire in the rear alley prevented the escape from the fire of some occupants of the MOVE house.

Even though the city of Philly had a Black mayor, Wilson Goode, and a Black city Managing Director, Leo Brooks, this atrocity was still allowed to occur. Even after the mayor had a meeting with 5 influential Black political leaders at his home on the morning of the bombing, he still gave the go-ahead to the police department to execute the dropping of the bombs.

“Were we wanted for rape, robbery, murder? No, nothing,” Ramona Africa, the only living MOVE survivor of that day, told the Guardian newspaper. Africa linked the bombing to the recent police killings of Michael Brown, Eric Garner and Freddie Gray: “These people that take an oath that swear to protect, save lives – the cops don’t defend poor people, poor white, black, Latino people. They don’t defend us, they kill us.

“All you have to do is look at the rash of police murders and the cops not being held accountable,” she added. “That should really alarm and outrage people, but the thing is that it’s happening today because it wasn’t stopped in ’85. The only justice that can be done is people seeing this system for what it is.”

Source: https://blackmainstreet.net/never-forget-1985-bombing-west-philedelphia-pa/

ABOUT MOVE: Belief and Practice

The MOVE Organization is a family of strong, serious, deeply committed revolutionaries founded by a wise, perceptive, strategically minded Black man named JOHN AFRICA. The principle of our belief is explained in a collection of writings we call “The Guidelines,” authored by JOHN AFRICA. To honor our beloved Founder, and acknowledge the wisdom and strength He has given us, we say “LONG LIVE JOHN AFRICA!”

http://onamove.com/about/

 

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